GOV 335M / PHL 342:


Professor Budziszewski


This online summary of the syllabus includes only the general design of the course.  It does not include detailed information such as the course calendar, which changes from semester to semester.


Prerequisites and other boilerplate

If the course is taken as Gov 335M, enrollment requires six semester hours of lower-division government.  This number may be repeated when topics vary.  The course can also be taken as Phl 342, but enrollment is limited.  Whether listed as Government or as Philosophy, it carries a writing flag and fulfills part of the basic education requirement in writing.  Within the Government Department, its field is Political Theory.



“Natural law” means moral law – in particular, the fundamental moral principles that are built into the design of human nature and lie at the roots of conscience.  Natural law thinking is the spine of the Western tradition of jurisprudence.  Historically, it has provided the basis for talking about all of the 'hot button' issues in past and present culture wars.  If you wanted to talk about war, slavery, political liberty, or relations between men and women, you talked about natural law.  The distinctive mark of natural law thinking is that it begins from what the mind can know about these things by reasoning alone, rather than by the authority of revelation.  This is in no way to deny revelation, for although the earliest natural law thinkers were pagans, the most influential natural law thinkers have been Christians who held that reason and revelation work together.

The founders of the American republic believed in the natural law -- in universal and "self-evident" principles of justice and morality which the Declaration of Independence called "the laws of Nature and of Nature's God."   For generations afterward, most Americans took the reality of natural law for granted.  The Declaration of Independence had appealed to it to justify independence; Abraham Lincoln appealed to it to criticize slavery; Martin Luther King appealed to it to criticize racial discrimination.  You would hardly guess any of this from the present day, because belief in natural law has come to be viewed as "politically incorrect."  Nevertheless, the tradition of natural law is experiencing a sort of renaissance, and books about it are pouring off the presses.

Is there really a natural law?  What difference does it make to society and politics if there is?  Is it really "natural"?  Is it really "law"?  To consider these questions, we will read a variety of influential works on natural law from the middle ages to the present.  Probably, most of your liberal arts education has implicitly rejected the whole idea, but in this course, for a change, you have an opportunity to hear the other side.



For Unit 1, a required analytical outline (20%).  For Units 2, 3, and 4, take-home essays (20% apiece).  Short-answer quizzes (20%).  Extra credit for analytical outlines for Units 2, 3, and 4 (up to 5 points per unit, added to exam grades).



Recommended but not required, and available on reserve:

J. Budziszewski, What We Can't Not Know: A Guide.

J. Budziszewski, Commentary on Thomas Aquinas's Treatise on Law.

J. Budziszewski, Companion to the Commentary.  Free online resource.


C.S. Lewis, The Abolition of Man.

Thomas Aquinas, Treatise on Law.

Readings packet.

Online readings listed in the readings packet.



1.  The Classical Synthesis:  Reading Thomas Aquinas, Treatise on Law.

2.  The American Reception of Natural Law Tradition:  Readings by John Locke, Thomas Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln, and Martin Luther King, among others.

3.  Some Contemporary Writing in Natural Law:  Readings by Robert Koons, Matthew O'Brien, Russell Hittinger, and John Hittinger, among others.

4.  Natural Law in Broader Perspective:  Reading C.S. Lewis, The Abolition of Man.